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突发!婴儿配方奶粉供应短缺,美国纽约宣布进入紧急状态
All of a sudden! New York declared a state of emergency due to shortage of infant formula

證券時報 ·  {{timeTz}}

因婴儿配方奶粉供应短缺,当地时间5月22日,美国纽约市市长埃里克·亚当斯宣布该市进入紧急状态。

New York City Mayor Eric Adams declared a state of emergency on May 22 local time due to a shortage of infant formula.

事实上,美国国内婴幼儿配方奶粉短缺的情况已持续数月。5月22日,拜登在社交媒体上发表声明称,通过「飞行配方奶粉行动」,22日已有78000磅婴儿配方奶粉从欧洲由军用飞机空运到美国印第安纳州的印第安纳波利斯市。

In fact, there has been a shortage of infant formula in the United States for several months. 78000 pounds of infant formula have been airlifted from Europe by military aircraft to Indianapolis, Indiana, through Operation Flying Formula, Biden said in a statement on social media on May 22.

婴儿配方奶粉短缺,美国纽约市长宣布纽约进入紧急状态

Shortage of infant formula, the mayor of New York declared a state of emergency in New York

据央视新闻消息,当地时间5月22日,美国纽约市市长埃里克·亚当斯签署紧急行政令,宣布该市因婴儿配方奶粉供应短缺而进入紧急状态。

New York City Mayor Eric Adams signed an emergency executive order on May 22, declaring the city a state of emergency due to a shortage of infant formula, CCTV News reported.

该行政令援引纽约地方法规,要求纽约市的婴儿配方奶粉销售价格保持稳定,并授权该市消费者保护部门防止市场出现炒高奶粉价格的欺诈行为。

Citing local regulations in New York, the bank's decree requires the sale price of infant formula in New York City to remain stable and authorizes the city's consumer protection department to prevent fraudulent speculation in the market.

据海外网,亚当斯表示,婴幼儿配方奶粉短缺给当地家庭造成了「难以想象的痛苦和焦虑」。他提到,签署紧急行政命令将打击相关奶粉价格欺诈行为,以防零售商哄抬价格。纽约市负责卫生和公共服务的副市长伊索姆也表示,「全国范围内的婴幼儿配方奶粉短缺正在伤害我们这座城市中的父母和家庭。」

Adams said the shortage of infant formula caused "unimaginable pain and anxiety" to local families, according to the overseas website. He mentioned that signing an emergency executive order would crack down on price fraud related to milk powder to prevent retailers from driving up prices. New York City Deputy Mayor Isom, who is responsible for health and public services, also said, "the nationwide shortage of infant formula is hurting parents and families in our city." "

拜登宣布2家婴儿配方奶粉制造商获得供应的优先地位

Biden announces priority for supply of two infant formula manufacturers

美国白宫当地时间5月23日在官网发声明称,总统拜登宣布,雅培和利洁时是第一批根据《国防生产法案》获得供应优先地位的婴儿配方奶粉制造商。

President Joe Biden announced that Abbott Laboratories and Reckitt were the first manufacturers of infant formula to be given priority under the Defense production Act, the White House said in a statement on its website on May 23.

5月22日,拜登在社交媒体上发表声明称,通过「飞行配方奶粉行动」,22日已有78000磅婴儿配方奶粉从欧洲由军用飞机空运到美国印第安纳州的印第安纳波利斯市。这批奶粉是拜登批准的从欧洲运往美国婴儿配方奶粉中的第一批。

78000 pounds of infant formula have been airlifted from Europe by military aircraft to Indianapolis, Indiana, through Operation Flying Formula, Biden said in a statement on social media on May 22. The milk powder is the first batch of infant formula approved by Biden to be shipped from Europe to the United States.

当地时间5月21日,美国总统拜登在访问亚洲期间签署了《2022年获得婴儿配方奶粉法》。《2022年获得婴儿配方奶粉法案》旨在确保美国有需要的家庭能够在突发公共卫生事件或产品召回等供应链问题发生期间继续购买具有WIC福利的婴儿配方奶粉。WIC是一项联邦援助计划,旨在为妇女、婴儿和儿童提供特殊福利和营养补充。白宫宣布,美国本周将把约150万瓶的配方奶粉从瑞士运送到美国印第安纳州进行分销。

On May 21, local time, US President Joe Biden signed the 2022 access to Infant Formula Act during a visit to Asia. The access to Infant Formula 2022 Act aims to ensure that families in need in the United States can continue to buy infant formula with WIC benefits during supply chain problems such as public health emergencies or product recalls. WIC is a federal assistance program designed to provide special benefits and nutritional supplements for women, babies and children. The White House announced that the United States will ship about 1.5 million bottles of formula from Switzerland to Indiana for distribution this week.

美国国内「奶粉荒」已持续数月

The "milk powder shortage" in the United States has been going on for months.

据央视新闻报道,美国国内婴幼儿配方奶粉短缺的情况已持续数月。有数据显示,在截至5月15日的一周时间里,美国全国范围内婴幼儿配方奶粉缺货率高达45%。配方奶粉「一罐难求」的局面让不少美国家长深感忧虑。

According to CCTV news, the shortage of infant formula in the United States has been going on for several months. Data show that in the week to May 15, the shortage rate of infant formula in the United States was as high as 45%. The situation of "hard to get a can of formula" worries many American parents.

分析认为,造成美国此轮「奶粉荒」主要有3大原因。

According to the analysis, there are three main reasons for the "milk powder shortage" in the United States.

  • 原因一:雅培关停工厂,垄断加剧断货危机

  • Reason 1: Abbott Laboratories shut down the factory, monopoly aggravated the out-of-stock crisis

据多家美国媒体报道,早前有消费者报告说,4名婴儿在食用雅培配方奶粉后患病,其中三人感染坂崎克罗诺杆菌,一人感染新港沙门氏菌。

According to several US media reports, earlier, consumers reported that four babies fell ill after eating Abbott Laboratories formula, three of them were infected with Cronobacter sakazakii and one was infected with Newport salmonella.

美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)表示,坂崎克罗诺杆菌可引发危及生命的败血症感染或脑膜炎,并可能导致其中2名婴儿死亡。

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said that Cronobacter sakazakii could cause life-threatening septic infections or meningitis and could kill two of the babies.

随后,雅培于2月召回产品并关闭其位于密歇根州的最大的制造工厂。在此之后,4月初全美配方奶粉的缺货率达30%,月底则上升至40%,上升势头持续保持至5月。

Abbott Laboratories then recalled products in February and closed its largest manufacturing plant in Michigan. Since then, the shortage rate of American formula reached 30% at the beginning of April, rising to 40% at the end of the month, and the upward trend continued until May.

实际上,厂商召回产品或者关停工厂并不罕见,大部分此类事件不会引发市场上相关产品的严重缺货。雅培事件之所以导致美国婴儿配方奶粉的严重短缺,其根源在于市场存在垄断。

In fact, it is not uncommon for manufacturers to recall products or close factories, and most of these incidents do not cause serious shortages of related products on the market. The reason why the Abbott Laboratories incident led to a serious shortage of infant formula in the United States lies in the monopoly of the market.

图片

△《财富杂志》报道

△ Fortune Magazine reports

据《财富杂志》《华尔街日报》等媒体的报道,美国婴儿配方奶粉市场中,少数的几家厂商控制了几乎所有的供应。根据美国农业部2011年的一份报告,10年前雅培在婴儿配方奶粉的市场份额约为43%,自那时起这数据几乎没有发生变化。2021年雅培的市场份额约为42%,其中约95%的产品均在美国国内生产。

According to media reports such as Fortune magazine and the Wall Street Journal, a few manufacturers in the US infant formula market control almost all of the supply. According to a 2011 USDA report, Abbott Laboratories's market share in infant formula was about 43% 10 years ago, and that figure has barely changed since then. Abbott Laboratories's market share is about 42 per cent in 2021, with about 95 per cent of its products produced in the US.

图片

△美国农业部《赢家几乎吃掉全部:WIC如何影响婴儿配方奶粉市场》调查报告

△ USDA Survey report "winners eat almost all: how WIC affects the infant formula market"

此外,美国一项政策从另一方面扭曲了这个行业。农业部有一个名为WIC的特殊组织,该组织被称为妇女、婴儿和儿童特别补充营养计划,该组织为孕妇和哺乳期女性及其幼儿提供各种服务。它也是美国婴儿配方奶粉的最大买家,它的独家采购合同仅签给了少数几家获得批准的配方奶粉公司。美国农业部2011年一份名为《赢家几乎吃掉全部:WIC如何影响婴儿配方奶粉市场》的报告显示,美国几乎所有的配方奶粉的销售都来自3家公司,雅培、美赞臣和嘉宝。

In addition, a US policy distorts the industry in another way. The Ministry of Agriculture has a special organization called WIC, known as the Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, infants and Children, which provides services for pregnant and lactating women and their young children. It is also the largest buyer of infant formula in the United States, and its exclusive procurement contracts are awarded to only a few approved formula companies. According to a 2011 USDA report entitled "winners eat almost all: how WIC affects the infant formula market", almost all sales of infant formula in the United States come from three companies, Abbott Laboratories, Mead Johnson and Garbo.

  • 原因二:新冠疫情影响下的供应链困境

  • Reason 2: the plight of the supply chain under the influence of COVID-19 epidemic

美国研究人员发现,新冠疫情影响了人们的部分消费习惯,先囤积商品再进入消化库存的周期,这样的情况使厂商的生产计划变得困难,市场规模也变得难以预估。

Us researchers have found that the COVID-19 epidemic has affected some of people's consumption habits, hoarding goods before entering the cycle of digesting inventory, which makes manufacturers' production plans difficult and the size of the market difficult to predict.

图片

△路透社报道

△ Reuters reported

据路透社报道,奶粉短缺始于2020年,受新冠疫情影响,美国民众开始囤积奶粉,此后配方奶粉厂商提高了产量,但随着需求的放缓,厂商在2021年又削减了产量。

The shortage of milk powder began in 2020, when Americans began hoarding milk powder as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic, and formula manufacturers increased production, but cut production in 2021 as demand slowed, Reuters reported.

美国咨询公司Demographic Intelligence的研究人员表示,2020年人们在囤积超量的奶粉后,市场需求开始下降,导致厂商在2021年减产;现在,随着2022年新生儿出生率的提高,新妈妈们需要更多的配方奶粉,订单激增的速度高于供应的恢复速度。

After people hoarded excess milk powder in 2020, demand began to decline, leading manufacturers to cut production in 2021, and now, with the birth rate rising in 2022, new mothers need more formula, and orders are surging faster than the recovery of supply, according to researchers at Demographic Intelligence, a US consulting firm.

  • 原因三:FDA反应迟缓,监管出现问题

  • Reason 3: slow response of FDA and problems in supervision

美国专家认为,美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)也应对配方奶粉严重短缺承担部分责任。

Us experts believe that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is also partly responsible for the severe shortage of formula milk powder.

据《财富杂志》报道,乔治城大学法律中心教授斯科特表示,FDA对举报人的报告反应不够迅速,他们本应尽快对涉事工厂进行检查。

Scott, a professor at Georgetown University's Law Center, said FDA did not respond quickly to the whistleblower's report and they should have inspected the factory as soon as possible, Fortune magazine reported.

图片

△众议员罗莎:FDA对举报的反应过慢

△ Congressman Rosa: FDA's response to the report was too slow.

来自民主党的众议员罗莎·德劳罗表示,FDA对举报的反应过慢。关于雅培问题奶粉的举报在2021年10月就已提交给FDA,直到2021年12月下旬FDA才联系并询问举报人,直到2022年1月31日FDA才亲自对雅培工厂进行检查,对问题产品的召回则是2022年2月17日发布的。

Rosa de Lauro, a Democratic congressman, said FDA was too slow to respond to the report. The report about Abbott Laboratories's defective milk powder was submitted to FDA in October 2021, and it was not until late December 2021 that FDA contacted and questioned the whistleblower, and it was not until January 31, 2022 that FDA personally inspected Abbott Laboratories's factory, and the recall of the defective products was issued on February 17, 2022.

编辑/lydia

Edit / lydia

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